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The dilemma of China Mongolia border trade railway operation: wind and sand erosion, coal can not be transported out

on June 29, 2005, the State Council approved Ceke port in Ejina Banner, Alxa League, Inner Mongolia as a bilateral land border port open to China and Mongolia all year round. Mongolia's rich coal and other mineral resources have created endless expectations for all parties. In the "impulse" of new opportunities for China Mongolia border trade, Lince railway, with a total investment of 4.27 billion yuan, was born. However, after the opening on December 26th, 2009, due to the single function of the special transportation line for coal and resources, the breach of the relevant contracts of Mongolia, the constraints of the domestic railway transportation system, the market changes caused by the sudden changes in coal prices, and the high maintenance costs caused by wind and sand erosion, Lince railway is now in a dilemma of having no coal to transport and no money to maintain

On April 11, 2013, a group of four people started from Bayannaoer City by SUV and drove along the road to Ceke port in Ejina Banner of Alxa League. This highway is 800 kilometers long, almost parallel to Lince railway

at more than 4 p.m., the off-road vehicle of Lince railway infrastructure management department fell into the desert. On the sand on both sides of the railway, there are black nylon geogrids hundreds of meters wide. One person high vertical sand barriers stand tens of meters away from the grids, and they extend far away along the railway line. This is the sand barrier of Lince railway

the wind was light that day, the sun shone on the railway, and the small sand rolled on the sleeper with the wind. Since the whole staff of Lince railway infrastructure management department took action to control the sand in 2010, the sand damage has been effectively controlled

Lince railway is 768 kilometers long from Linhe District of Bayannaoer City in Inner Mongolia to Ceke port of Ejina Banner in Alxa League, crossing Ulan Buhe, yamarek and Badain Jaran deserts, 350 kilometers of Gobi Desert line, and nearly 400 kilometers of no man's land

on December 26th, 2009, Lince railway was opened. As long as the wind blows near maodehuge station, the sand will bury the railway track. At that time, the biological stability of PCU of the iron buried by sand along the whole Lince railway needs further study. The track is nearly 300 kilometers, so it is impossible to organize driving. At that time, Hohhot Railway Bureau (hereinafter referred to as "Hohhot Railway Bureau") affiliated to Lince railway spared no effort to combat desertification, and the freight train was not officially launched until July 15, 2010

the embarrassment of this special line for transporting coal imported from Mongolia is: huge investment in sand prevention, serious losses, coal in urgent need of transportation on the one hand, and excess transport capacity on the other. Lince railway company is eager to crack it, but it is willing but insufficient

18:00, after more than an hour of sand raking, stone bedding and pushing, the SUV finally got out of the sand sea and set off again. After passing the dam mountain, there are vast Gobi desert and undulating sand dunes on both sides of the road. Occasionally, a low house appears on the Gobi Desert beside the road for long-distance drivers to have a rest

20 o'clock, the train arrives at tukemu station. A group of 4 people slept in the dormitory of tukemu Temple Station at night. Sand control has become a prerequisite for the normal operation of Lince railway.

at 16:00 on April 12, the director of the sand control workshop at the k390 km of Lince railway has not rested for more than 40 days.

on April 12, when the train arrived at the k390 km of Lince railway, the sand had been buried in the rail fasteners and was only a few centimeters away from the track surface. On that day, workers eradicated the sand on the track and the wind rolled the sand in the distance, The uplifted railway has undoubtedly become a stronghold of sand. According to the regulations, the sand damage is divided into three levels: first level buried rails, second level buried fasteners, and third level buried sleepers. It can pass under level 2

when it was just opened, the line that had just been cleared was buried again in an instant in a windy day. All incoming trains are affected by sand, and the round trip is as short as 3-4 days and as long as 6-7 days, which seriously interferes with the train's speed reaching operation. In the 300 km line affected by sand, the maximum depth of sand accumulation can reach 1.5 meters

according to experts' analysis, the road section from k67 km to k675 km of Lince railway and the whole line of Tiance line will be disturbed by sand disasters in the future

from the analysis of the scope of sand damage, the natural environment is the main factor. In the Gobi, when there is no railway, there is no sand accumulation here, but a necessary place for a large number of sand and stones to migrate with the wind; After the completion of the railway, due to the high subgrade, the line equipment and subgrade have become a sand retaining wall, and all the sand and stones stay around the subgrade during the migration with the wind, devouring the railway

as long as the wind blows, it is an order to Zhang Hongjie, director of the sand control workshop of the Lince railway infrastructure management department. They will patrol the road against the wind and sand, and rest in the camping car when it is serious

the sand control workshop is not far from k390 km. There are 9 sand control points in the sand control workshop, with 260 employees. In 2010, the number of sand removal personnel reached 620, and all personnel from the infrastructure management department were dispatched

Zhang Hongjie, who lives in Wuhai City, more than 500 kilometers away, has not rested on his post for more than 40 consecutive days. As spring, summer and autumn are the high incidence period of sandstorms, the situation of sand control is severe, and many workers have given up rest

2010 is the year of combating desertification. The Hohhot Railway Bureau established the Lince railway desertification control project headquarters in March 2010, specially equipped with the vice minister in charge of desertification control, and set up the desertification control section. A sand control workshop was established in August 2010, equipped with a certain number of labor workers and mechanical equipment. They used to set up high vertical sand barriers, geogrids, dig sand intercepting ditches, build sand retaining walls, plant branch sand barriers and sand mixed with stones for governance

at 16:00 on April 12, the car arrived at the k420 km sand control point. Workers are repairing the invalid geogrid dozens of kilometers away. Due to the drought in desert areas, high temperature in summer and strong wind and sand, some nylon geogrids have been torn by the wind and have become invalid. This year, 100 kilometers of geogrids need to be rebuilt. Zhang Bing, the Mongolian leader, said that in order to avoid heat stroke in summer, they got up at 3 o'clock in the morning and started work until 9 o'clock; Start work at 6 p.m. and finish work around 10 p.m

the living conditions of this sand control point built with movable plank houses on the Gobi desert are very difficult. As it is located in an arid and uninhabited area, vegetables and drinking water are all provided by living supply vehicles sent from Linhe every Monday. There is no toilet here, and the privacy of male and female workers can only be covered by sand dunes. Lince railway company is under great pressure from the annual repair cost of 30 to 40 million yuan of sand control facilities

At 19:00 on April 12, the train arrived at Swan Lake West Station in Ejina Banner, where the railway forked, one to Ejina Banner in Alxa League and the other to Qike port

after more than two hours of turbulence, the off-road vehicle arrived at the Ceke comprehensive workshop. The workshop is next to Ceke railway station, and the platform is brightly lit. Except for an empty freight train, the station yard is empty at that night. Ceke station has not sent coal cars for two consecutive days

On June 29th, 2005, the State Council approved Ceke port as a perennial open land border port between China and Mongolia. In the same year, Lince railway company was established, and Hohhot Railway Bureau, China Railway Engineering Corporation, Inner Mongolia Qinghua Group, Shougang holdings, Baotou Iron and Steel Group and other enterprises as shareholders invested a total of 4.27 billion yuan to build Lince railway. The main feature of the port is that the surrounding mineral resources are rich. The narin suhaite coalfield in Mongolia is only 48 kilometers away from the port, and the initially proved reserves are 1.67 billion tons. At the beginning, the project of Lince railway was established as a special coal line. The designed maximum daily transportation volume was 8 pairs of trains, and the annual transportation capacity was 17.5 million tons in the short term and 30.6 million tons in the long term

however, the actual operation is far from achieving this goal

in the afternoon of April 13, nearly 3million tons of coal at Ceke port could not be transported out

in the afternoon of April 13, strong winds suddenly rose, and the sky over the whole Ceke was black. Eight coal logistics parks depicted Ceke as a scene of "windy and dark, windless and dark". When the car rolled coal dust and ash into Ruyi Yonghui logistics park, empty carriages were parked on the eight tracks in the logistics park. There was no loading in the logistics park in the past two days

the logistics park was jointly invested by Beijing Yonghui company and Hohhot Railway Bureau Foreign Economic Co., Ltd. in November 2010. Ruyi Yonghui logistics park was officially put into operation on May 7, 2011. Among them, Yonghui company accounts for 51% and Hohhot Railway Bureau Foreign Economic Cooperation Company accounts for 49%. The main function of the logistics park is to undertake the loading of coal transportation by Lince railway at Ceke port. Except for a passenger train from Hohhot to Ejina the next day, the rest of Lince railway are coal trains

in terms of traffic volume, Lince railway transportation is not ideal. At present, there is only a small part of train transportation, and Ceke port imports about 10million tons of raw coal every year. In 2011, 2.6 million tons of raw coal were transported by railway, including 1.39 million tons by Lince railway, 1.21 million tons by jiace railway, and more than 8 million tons by road. In 2012, 2.27 million tons of raw coal were transported by railway, including 1.1 million tons by Lince railway, 1.17 million tons by jiace railway, and more than 6 million tons by road. According to the data provided by Ruyi Yonghui company, 91 trains started in January, 54 in February, 73 in March and 36 in April this year. The fixed load of each train is 5000 tons

according to the interview, there are three reasons for the small railway transportation volume of coal at Ceke port: first, the transportation capacity from Mongolia to Ceke port is limited. Due to the road transportation, the transportation volume is limited by the time of customs clearance. China Railway 11th Bureau has won the bid for the coal railway special line from Ceke to South Gobi province of Mongolia, but then Mongolia suddenly changed its mind and terminated the agreement. This special line originally connected with Lince railway has been shelved. Pendulum impact testing machine is a common one. Later, I wanted to pass the customs through the transmission belt. Due to the reasons of Mongolia, the progress of this project was slow

second, the railway transportation itself is limited. Lince railway is a line under the jurisdiction of Hohhot Railway Bureau. There is no problem in the transportation within the Bureau, and the inter Bureau transportation is limited. Many bulk customers of Ceke coal come from Beijing Tianjin Tangshan region, which involves inter Bureau transportation. The outgoing wagons are strictly restricted and cannot depart every day, because it takes a long time to distribute goods back

there is a backlog of nearly 3million tons of coal at Ceke port, which cannot be transported to Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan and Shanxi. The main reason is the difficulty of inter Bureau transportation. Other bureaus are almost more difficult to do, such as Shanghai Bureau, Guangzhou Bureau, Chengdu Bureau, Kunming Bureau, etc. from Hohhot Railway Bureau, it is almost impossible to send coal trucks there. The main reason is that it takes a long time to distribute goods and return. Some bureaus also need transit transportation, which greatly increases the transportation cost. A person in charge of Ceke coal transportation and marketing company said that when the wagon is tight, the coordination cost of the railway in the early stage is also very large, otherwise the wagon will not be available

third, coking coal is mainly imported at Ceke port, which is greatly affected by the market. As long as the international coking coal price declines, domestic demand will immediately decline. Just two days before arriving in Ceke, the international coking coal price fell, and the traffic volume of Ceke port immediately plummeted

Lince railway is an important railway in Alxa. How many materials are transported outside of coal

the car rolled up with dust and rushed to Sumu (township) in suponor, which is the township government where Ceke port is located. As it was Saturday, the person in the duty room informed that Su muda (township head) Cao Weijiang returned to Ejina banner at the weekend. Therefore, continue to drive to the Ejina banner government 76 kilometers away

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